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Minolta 10P 16mm Camera

 

Widget Of The Week

Nuclear Enterprises Ratemeter RM5/1, 1980

It is tempting, but technically incorrect, to call this Nuclear Enterprises RM5/1 a Geiger Counter. It’s not but confusingly, that is what the one in the photo has become because it is connected to a probe (similar vintage to the RM5/1) that uses a Geiger Müller tube to detect radioactivity. Don’t worry it’s just another one of the many quirks and foibles of the nuclear radiation business. The RM5/1 is actually a Ratemeter and what makes it that, rather than a plain old Geiger Counter, is down to several useful features.

 

The first one is the socket on the front of the case. It’s for the a probe, which can be one of several types, including the Geiger probe shown – as well as other types, which we will come to in a moment.  The next most important features are the preset control, marked ‘SET EHT’  (Extra High Tension or just HT) to the right of the main function knob on the top of the case. This adjusts the high voltage supply, to the probe, which significantly varies from one type to another. The useful voltage range is between 300 and around 1400 volts, which covers the vast majority of probes. Variable HT is actually a fairly common feature on Geiger counters and ratemeters but usually its hidden away, inside the case or only adjustable in software. Either way this usually means having to connect the instrument concerned up to a specialised voltmeter or a computer, which is a bit of a faff.  Which brings us to another pair of handy features, and they are the EHT position on the main function control knob and the big meter. When the switch is in that mode the voltage output can be set using the meter’s inner red scale. It’s a bit rough and ready but accurate enough for most probes, which generally operate over a comparatively wide voltage range.

 

This combination of features makes probe switching a really quick and simple operation. It greatly increases the instruments flexibility, especially in the field, which helped to make the RM5/1 a popular choice in research, industry and medicine throughout the 80s and 90s. Radiation probes are typically designed to be responsive to one particular or a range of different types of ionising radiation. The three basic flavours are Alpha, Beta and Gamma and X-Ray (the last two are closely related) – there are other varieties but they are beyond the scope of the RM5/1.

 

Time for quick and dirty guide to common probe types. On paper Alpha radiation appears to be quite weak as it doesn’t travel more than a few centimetres through the air and can be blocked by a thin sheet of paper. This makes it quite difficult to detect, especially if you are not looking for it, or unaware that it is there. Although Alpha radiation cannot penetrate skin to any significant depth, it can do terrible damage to cells and organs if it gets inside the body, as the Litvinenko Polonium poisoning case in 2006 tragically proved. The most common type of Alpha sensitive probe is a modified Geiger Müller tube, sometimes called a ‘pancake’ (they tend to be flat and round), with a thin ‘window’ at one end made of the mineral Mica. This allows the Alpha particles to pass through, but prevents gasses inside from leaking out. General-purpose probes – like the  1257 C in the photo, have Geiger Müller tubes made of glass or metal. They cannot detect Alpha radiation but they are sensitive to Beta, Gamma and X-Ray radiation. This particular probe also has a sliding metal shield that covers the tube. The idea is it blocks Beta radiation so it can discriminate between the two types. The third class of probe is a Scintillation detector. Inside the probe there’s a detector ‘crystal’ (made of organic compounds or a special plastic). It emits weak flashes of light when exposed to Gamma radiation. The crystal is mounted on the face of a photomultiplier tube, which amplifies the flashes to produce the pulses that a ratemeter like the RM5/1 can measures or display on its meter. Incidentally, Scintillation probes can also be used to identify radioactive isotopes from the brightness and duration of the flashes, though this requires rather more sophisticated equipment.

 

Back now to a roundup of the rest of the RM5/1’s more notable features, starting with the meter. It is in unusual in that the moving pointer or needle travels through 270 degrees, which means the scale is significantly longer than most ordinary panel meters, which typically have 90-degree scales. The numbers on the scale, showing counts per second (CPS), increase logarithmically. This eliminates the need for a range switch and it can show readings, with reasonable accuracy, from just a few CPS right up to a rather scary sounding 5000 CPS. The upper end of the scale is mainly for the benefit of pancake and scintillation probes, which can be super-sensitive and might easily wrap the meter pointer around the end stop on instruments without a range switch or log-scale. It has a built-in ‘clicker’, heard through a small loudspeaker mounted on the front of the case. This can be muted from a switch to the left of the main function knob. It is powered by a pair of 1.5-volt D cells that should last weeks or months, even with regular use, and these live under the carry handle, which is held in place by four screws.

 

I have had this RM5/1 for several years, a swapsie for another instrument with a fellow rad enthusiast. At the time they were regarded as quite exotic and rarely seen outside of the usual industrial and scientific settings. It was in pretty good shape, in good working order and all it needed to make it presentable for this piece was a circuit check and quick wipe over. The RM5/1 first appeared in the early 1980s and even back then it was a fairly basic design. It uses only discrete components, there are no microchips and the large circuit board has wire-wrapped connections and a super neat, laced wiring loom. It is the kind of hand-assembled construction that harks back to an earlier age where money was no object and ruggedness and reliability were the prime considerations. And that is how it should be, considering that it was designed to be used in safety critical applications. The lower part of the case is the RM5/1’s only weakness. The plastic is a bit thin around the corners, which makes it prone to cracking if it is dropped or roughly handled roughly.

 

What Happened To It?

There’s a potted history of Nuclear Enterprises in the write up for one of its close cousins, the PDM1 Doserate meter. Suffice it to say that after numerous takeovers and mergers the brand is no more. At the time this instrument first appeared NE was doing well as a major supplier of radioactivity monitoring and measuring equipment to government and the nuclear industry. But even in its heyday, in the eighties and early nineties, the RM5/1 was starting to look a tad dated, compared with what was coming onto the market from other companies around the world. Nevertheless, because they were so reliable and simple to use many of them continued to earn their keep well into the noughties and were only replaced when they became uneconomic to maintain and cheaper and more sophisticated instruments became available. In the past couple of years hundreds of them have been decommissioned and inevitably a fair few ended up on ebay.

 

At the time of writing (Autumn 2020) there were a dozen or more for sale, ranging in price from £10 to £50. Buying one not listed as working could be a gamble, however. Most are labelled as untested and sold without probes but if you are feeling lucky, have a spare probe handy, a good working knowledge of electronics, a circuit diagram and some basic test equipment you should be able to track down most faults. Most parts are readily available, and even tricky items, like the bespoke meter and transformers, might be salvaged from cheap basket cases.


DATA

First Seen:                   1980

Original Price:             £?

Value Today:               £25 (1020)

Features:                     Variable HT (0 - 1.4kV. voltage scale on meter), logarithmically scaled meter (CPS), GM tube and Scintillation inputs, battery check (on meter), built in ‘click’ sounder with mute, PET probe connector, built in carry handle

Power req.                       2 x 1.5 volt D cells

Dimensions:                     240 x 115 x 120mm

Weight:                            1.4kg

Made (assembled) in:       Britain

Hen's Teeth (10 rarest)      5



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